The bullet strikes forehead at the edge of the superior (upper) right sinus cavity. The bullet fragment is in the sinus cavity just below the bullet hole in the scalp.
Juan Martinez kept saying the bullet struck Alexander in his right temple. The small circle toward the rear from the bullet wound is the temple. The bullet did not strike his temple at all.
The bullet strikes the perpendicular plate at the blue dot and then travels into the inferior (lower) left sinus cavity, busting through and coming to rest in the soft tissue under the left cheek.
The bullet striking the perpendicular plate would shatter and tear away the cribriform plate, leaving a large hole.
The cribriform plate, attached to the perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone.
Dr. Horns found this plate mostly missing and supposed the damage was the result of an exiting bullet.
When a man takes the stand and swears an oath, he swears to tell the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. When a medical examiner in the performance of his duty and as an expert takes the stand, he is bound with absoluteness to tell all he knows.
Maricopa County medical examiners work neither for the prosecutor nor the court. They work for the people of the county through the health department. (Arizona apparently has no coroners.) When a medical examiner performs an autopsy and then takes the stand to give testimony concerning his findings, he does not side with the prosecutor. He does not side with the defense. He is there to testify accurately to his findings—all his findings.
Overwhelming evidence suggests in the strongest possible terms, Dr. Kevin Horn, Medical Examiner of Maricopa County, did not tell the whole truth during his testimony in the trial of Jodi Arias. He apparently perjured himself both times he took the witness stand in the Jodi Arias trial. It appears he did so in support of the prosecutor's case.
Furthermore, it is apparent Prosecutor Juan Martinez may have suborned Dr. Horn’s perjury and conspired with Dr. Horn to tailor his testimony to fit the prosecutor’s version of the events resulting in Travis Alexander’s death on June 4, 2008. It is also clear Juan Martinez may have suborned perjury of Detective Esteban Flores and conspired with Flores to tailor his testimony to fit the prosecutor’s case.
The evidence is in Dr. Horn’s autopsy report of Travis Alexander, the crime scene photographs, and trial testimony.
The juror's question about Alexander’s intact dura mater clearly caught Dr. Horn off guard. The covering of his mouth with his hand while reading the related paragraph, and then the tossing the report aside were strong indicators of intense stress. His response was to call the statement in question a “typo”. However, to describe the statement in question as a typo is less then congruous. The statement of an intact dura mater harmonizes with the rest of the statements concerning the brain in Dr. Horn’s report. The harmony proves the statement was accurate as written.
In plain language, all the statements in Dr. Horn’s autopsy report—including or excluding the dura mater statement—reveal a brain without damage of any kind, only decomposition. This is especially evident in the cerebral symmetry.Symmetry is used when doctors or nurses examine, for example, an injured thumb. The doctor will ask the patient to hold up both thumbs to compare the two for symmetry. This way they can see by comparison if the affected thumb is deformed, swollen, or otherwise different than the unaffected thumb.)
If a bullet had transected the right frontal lobe, the brain would in no way have good symmetry, the two hemispheres would not have mirrored each other. Dr. Horn spent many words under oath proclaiming a bullet passing through the front lobe of a brain creates serious damage. Serious damage and good symmetry are incompatible conditions.
Furthermore, Dr. Horn listed “sharp force trauma of the neck and torso” as the cause of death. He did not mention the brain, because the finding as revealed in his autopsy report do not allow for a bullet to have penetrated the brain. When he reported the gunshot wound specifically, he listed injuries to the skull and face; but he did not include the brain because nothing in his reported findings supports brain damage as an injury.
Therefore, Dr. Horn’s legal and dutifully stated cause of death in his autopsy report is at odds with his testimony on the stand:
Moreover, if Dr. Horn had discovered a bullet-produced rupture in the dura mater, he would have stated the location of the rupture, the size of the rupture, and the nature of the rupture (laceration, puncture, jagged, smooth, etc). Since the proposed bullet path was a through and through, he would have listed two rupture locations, two sizes, and two descriptions. Language stating the location, size, and nature of the supposedly rupture in the dura mater is found nowhere Dr. Horn’s entire report. It simply does not exist. Absence of the massive body of information in Dr. Horn’s autopsy report well surpasses the definition of the word “typo”.
If Dr. Horn looked unhappy and defensive during cross, there is good reason. His claims under oath contradicted the findings in his autopsy report. Contradictory statements, written or spoken, constitute falseness.
These inconsistencies were not limited to findings in his report. Dr. Horn dogmatically assertion a bullet passing through the brain would definitely cause incapacitation. There are simply too many examples of people remaining conscious and fully functioning after a bullet has entered and or passed through the brain.
Nobody, expert or novice, can assert a definitive answer on this matter. Most of the time, a bullet passing through the brain kills outright. Sometimes it causes incapacitation. Sometimes it does not. Like most things in life, results depend upon unpredictable conditions and situations. No honest doctor or scientist would or could claim a bullet passing through the brain automatically causes incapacitation. The assertion is absolutely outrageous, baseless, and wholly unscientific. The statement did, however, appear designed to support the prosecutor’s desire to prove a post mortem coup de grace.
In addition, when Dr. Horn claimed the bullet “must have” passed through Alexander’s brain, he again appears to tailor testimony. To claim the bullet “must have” passed through the brain ignores all his reported empirical evidence. To make an emphatic statement without supporting data is to step beyond scientific methodology into the realm of speculation and opinion. Although the doctor may give an opinion on the stand, if asked, he must preface his opinion and not declare opinion as fact.
All the evidentiary language in his autopsy report describes an undamaged brain. It seems a paradox to find, on one hand, evidence a bullet passed through the anterior fossa and find, on the other hand, evidence the bullet did not pass through the anterior fossa. At first glance, one might support the doctor’s assertion that a bullet must have passed through the brain. But science is never satisfied with the word phrase, “must have,” as a solution to a paradox. The moment a scientist chooses those unfortunate words, another scientist provides a reasonable solution.
Although evidence of perjury is mounting, I am certain Dr. Kevin Horn faithfully described his true findings in his autopsy report: the intact dura mater, undamaged autolyzed brain, and the two apparent bullet holes.
This must have mystified Dr. Horn. Nonetheless, he found what he found, and he faithfully reported what he had discovered. No two autopsies are exactly alike. Some are more memorable than others. An once-in-a-lifetime autopsy finding, like this one, would stand out in a doctor’s mind. There is no way Dr. Horn would have forgotten the “magic bullet” that caused no cerebral damage.
Nonetheless, how can a bullet pass through the brainpan without damaging the brain? It still sounds reasonable to say the bullet “must have” passed through the brain? What other answer could there be?
We live in a physical world, governed by physical laws. When a scientist discovers a paradox, he must not make assumptions but report his findings and then consider all possibilities until he or she finds an answer. Scientific discovery, even a routine autopsy, demands dedicated contemplation and shuns off-the-cuff deductions.
Although scientists come to know and understand the world through observations, they also realize not all observations reveal truth. The setting sun is a good example of observational trickery. Under the right atmospheric conditions, the sun will set below the horizon but remain visible to the observer. This is called the Novaya Zemlya effect, when the sun’s rays bend due to atmospheric refraction, allowing observers to see what is not there. This is akin to a pencil appearing to bend when dipped into clear water.
The bullet that struck Alexander’s head was working under the physical dynamics of objects in high-speed flight. A bullet that appears to penetrate the brainpan but doesn’t isn’t magic but an example of physics slight of hand.
I have fired thousand of rounds downrange, and I’ve seen bullets perform in a way that explains what happened when the .25 caliber bullet struck Alexander’s forehead. When a bullet strikes a surface at an angle, it often deflects (ricochets). Very often, the deflecting bullet will punch a bullet-sized hole in the surface of the object as it glances off. This happens frequently. It is not at all unusual.
It is, though, atypical for a .25 caliber bullet shot at distance to penetrate the thick skull bone of the human forehead, especially when the bullet strikes the skull at such a dramatic angle. A 35 to 50-grain bullet simply does not carry enough kinetic energy to do so. More often than one might think, a .25 caliber bullet will deflect off the skull bone and become trapped between the skull and the scalp.
The x-ray of Alexander’s skull shows a bullet fragment in the sinus cavity not far from the bullet wound in the scalp (see x-ray photos A and F). Bullet fragments are indicators of the true path of the bullet.
Since Dr. Horn found an apparent bullet entry hole in Alexander’s forehead, and an apparent exit hole near the base of the skull, but no apparent damage to the brain, there is only one explanation to answer what had happened:
Dr. Horn looked into Alexander’s skull and, finding two holes, assumed they were evidence of a bullet passing through the anterior fossa (the front lobe of the brain pan). He never looked beyond his first casual impression—even though the intact dura mater and undamaged brain were strong evidence his conclusion was wholly inaccurate. When findings produced a paradox, a scientist must continue searching for an answer. Repeatedly crying out, “The bullet must have gone through the brain” is neither honest nor good science.
Nevertheless, as I previously wrote, it is most unlikely Dr. Horn would have forgotten the once-in-a-lifetime paradox of Alexander’s two bullet holes with their associated undamaged brain and intact dura mater. His feigning loss of memory, even after five years, is highly incredulous.
It’s one thing for the doctor to forget or become confused; we are all human. However, it’s another to conveniently forget in support of a prosecutor who might need the gunshot to have occurred last as a postmortem coup de grace to convince the jury to return a death penalty verdict.
But this likely perjury may not have ended with Dr. Horn’s feigned faulty memory, mischaracterization of his own autopsy report, baseless assertions, and phantom bullet passing through an undamaged brain. To bolster the Arias-shot-Alexander-postmortem scenario, Juan Martinez needed to explain the blood spray pattern in the bathroom sink and countertop. It appears he may have recruited Dr. Horn to create a plausible false explanation.
The blood spray in the sink was obviously produced by Alexander coughing blood up from his throat, blowing it out his mouth, or blowing it out his nose. (Coughing appears the most likely method of delivery.) The gunshot is the only wound capable of supplying blood to the throat, mouth, or nose. Yet, it appears Juan Martinez may have prompted Dr. Horn to lie under oath; because he needed Alexander’s chest wound to supply the blood to the throat, mouth, and or nose.
Consider the following of Dr. Horn’s first testimony during the Arias trail:
Let’s start with the obvious. None of Alexander’s throat injuries are able to supply blood for him to cough up. The two stabs to the right side of his neck cut no deeper than the subcutaneous. The stab to the front right of his neck is no deeper. The severed throat would prevent Alexander from coughing altogether, and blood from the severed neck vein and artery simply does not gush uphill through the esophagus (see photo at bottom of page).
Dr. Horn claimed the lung could have been punctured along with the incised superior vena cava, but he claimed the body was too decomposed to know definitively. This statement does not harmonize with his autopsy findings.
Look at the language in the autopsy report.
If the lungs had been too autolyzed to precisely tell if one had been punctured during the stabbing, they would be too autolyzed to note induration (hardening), consolidation (filled with liquid), hemorrhage, or gross scarring. If the lungs had been too autolyzed to note these things, he would have said so in his autopsy report.
Lungs are composed of soft tissue. This tissue decomposes fairly quickly. However, the pleura surrounding and containing the lungs consists of a tough membrane, which decomposes much more slowly. The soft tissue in the lungs was autolyzed, so liquids associated with decomposition would have poured or seeped through an incised membrane. If the lung had been compromised, it would have been obvious.
Nonetheless, a stab to the vena cava cannot supply blood to the mouth, throat, or nose. There is no pathway through which to flow. Dr. Horn should know this truth. But in speculating upon the possibility of a cut lung, for which the nature of the language in his autopsy report refutes, the doctor likely purposefully ignored the findings in his own report in support of the prosecutor’s case against Jodi Arias.
The most telling portion of Dr. Horn’s testimony was Juan Martinez’s question about blood coming from an ear via a stab to the chest. The crime scene picture shows blood in Alexander’s right ear (see photo above). The only wound capable of producing blood flow through the auditory canal is the gunshot wound, but only if Alexander had been shot first while he was alive. If he had been shot last after death, blood would not have flowed through the auditory canal. Therefore, Juan Martinez wanted to somehow show the stab wound to the vena cava caused the blood in the right ear.
Dr. Horn talks about blood coming from the mouth and nose but does not respond to Juan Martinez’s mentioning of the ear. In not responding to Juan Martinez’s suggestion that the chest wound could produce blood in the ear, the doctor leaves the comment unchallenged, which gives the impression a cut to the vena cava and possibly a nicked lung could create blood flow out of the ear.
Dr. Horn knows from his training and experience a severed throat does not cause blood to flow through the audio canal and out the ear. Dr. Horn knows an incised superior vena cava does not supply blood to the ear. Dr. Horn also knows a punctured lung does not cause the ear to bleed.
Juan Martinez and Dr. Horn’s questions and answers during cross and testimony indicate dishonest intent. The blood in Alexander’s right ear seems the strongest evidence of perjury, subornation for perjury, and maybe even conspiracy to commit perjury.
The moment Juan Martinez mentioned blood coming out of the ear, Dr. Horn should have clarified and revealed to the court the only wound capable of producing blood in Alexander’s right ear was the gunshot to the head. He did not.
If Dr. Horn made a lie of omission, it would be a violation of his oath to tell the whole truth. The doctor is responsible as medical examiner to the whole truth, to speak all he knows and not limit his testimony to appease the prosecutor. According to the Maricopa County website, “Generally medical examiners are in agencies separate from law enforcement and the criminal justice system to preserve their objectivity. For example, in Maricopa County the Office of the Medical Examiner is under the County Health Department.” (Emphasis mine)(http://www.maricopa.gov/medex/faq.aspx)
As a doctor, if Dr. Kevin Horn lied, he not only violated his oath to tell the truth, he would have violated his Hippocratic oath to do no harm. Putting Jodi Arias to death through untruthful testimony causes a great deal of harm.
It was Dr. Horn’s duty to tell all he knew, and he knew far more than he told. Yet, Dr. Horn would have no motivation to lie under oath through his own volition. The prosecutor, Juan Martinez, is the only beneficiary from the medical examiner’s false testimony.
If Juan Martinez has tampered with this witness, he has violated his oath as a prosecutor and undone justice. All defendants deserve a fair hearing without prejudice. If the indicated perjury in this case proves true, the lies told have undermined material evidence in support of the defendant’s claim of self-defense. This is not a minor accusation.
With this in mind, Arias’s defense team had accused Detective Esteban Flores of perjury for testimony he delivered during pretrial hearings that Dr. Horn had asserted a shot-first theory. He then gave a different testimony during the trial. If Juan Martinez had actually suborned perjury from Dr. Kevin Horn, it stands to reason he would also suborn perjury from Detective Flores. Any investigation into Martinez/Horn should include the detective.
All things considered, if Juan Martinez suborned perjury to prove an aggravator to obtain the death penalty, it is no leap of imagination to conclude he would overlook and or hide other evidence that proves self-defense. For example, the cuts to the back of Alexander’s left hand are not defensive wounds. They are wounds Alexander received when Arias cut his hand with the knife to make him let go of her clothes. Nobody seemed to notice this evidence.
Are prosecutorial misconduct, perjury, and subornation for perjury business as usual in Arizona’s legal system? It appears so to a worldwide audience, a worldwide audience of would-be tourists who watched this trial with ever-widening eyes. This world audience was not mesmerized by HLN’s coverage. From comments on social media, it's evident they tended to see the truth of this thing.
If Jodi Arias cannot receive a fair trial from the Arizona courts, then what safeguard do these tourists have to protect themselves from the same corrupt legal system? People want to visit the Grand Canyon, admire the saguaro cacti along Interstate Eight, and see all of Arizona’s natural wonders. These people, these would-be tourists do not want to experience the nightmare of going on a short Arizona vacation only to spend the rest of their lives in an Arizona prison due to prosecutorial misconduct and corruption.
Arizona is one of the most beautiful states in the Union, a draw to millions of visitors every year. If they are guilty of crimes, Juan Martinez, Dr. Kevin Horn, and Detective Esteban Flores will have managed to turn this State into one of the seediest places on earth—on national television no less.
There is no place for corruption in our legal system. Corruption leads to legal tyranny, and then nobody is safe.
I encourage Arizona Governor Janice Brewer to order Attorney General Tom Horne to investigate Medical Examiner Dr. Kevin Horn of Maricopa County for perjury and conspiracy to commit perjury and any other crimes associated with the same in the capital case against Jodi Arias.
I encourage Arizona Governor Janice Brewer to order Attorney General Tom Horne to investigate Detective Esteban Flores for perjury and conspiracy to commit perjury and any other crimes associated with the same in this capital case against Jodi Arias.
I encourage Arizona Governor Janice Brewer to order Attorney General Tom Horne to investigate Prosecutor Juan Martinez for conspiracy to commit perjury, witness tampering, subornation for perjury, and any other crimes associated with the same in this capital case against Jodi Arias.
It is not a prosecutor’s place to decide guilt and then manufacture testimony in support of prejudice. We find truth where it lies, not where we want it to be or where we think it ought to be.
Let truth prevail.
The blood in Alexander's right ear comes from the auditory canal. The only wound capable of producing this blood is the gunshot to his forehead while he was alive-not after death.
(See photo at bottom of page to see blood evidence under Alexander's nose)
The only wound on Alexander's body capable of causing blood to flow through the auditory canal to emerge from his right ear was the gunshot to the forehead. A severed throat will not produce blood in the ears. Stab wounds to the chest do not cause the ears to bleed, nor does a stab wound to the lungs. The only wound on Alexander’s body capable of supplying blood that would pass through the auditory canal to emerge from his right ear was the gunshot wound—period.
Innocence: Proof of Perjury
by Richard Speights
Original image was too dark to see details. This image has been lightened.
Blood flowing straight down from the nose to the mouth shows Alexander was upright and alive as his nose produced blood. The only wound capable of supplying blood to Alexander's nose while he was upright was the gunshot to the head.
Alexander was found lying in the shower on his right side. If the blood came from purging (a decomposing body expelling associated liquids), the purge would have flowed to his right.It’s not possible for blood to gush out of the nose when the throat is severed. Nonetheless, if this were the result of a severed throat, the blood would not have flowed down to his mouth but out into a pool on the floor or over his cheeks as he lie on the floor.
(see photo at top of this page to see blood in Alexander's ear)
Copy edited July 23, 2014
A look down at the cribriform plate from above.
The base of the skull as we look down from above the top of the head.
The blue mark is where the bullet struck the forehead. The read mark is the location of the bullet fragment. We know the fragment is in the sinus cavity, because Dr. Horn found no fragments in the brain.
Dr. Horn's proposed bullet path zigs into the anterior fossa (where the brain's front lobe resides), and then zags back to end up under the left cheek.
The blue mark marks the impact point, the location of the hard bone of the forehead. The bullet would have deflected on the hard bone and not entered the brainpan.
The perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone is attached to the cribriform plate in the base of the skull.
Skull overlay. This skull image is a centerline cutaway. The sinus cavity wraps around, encompassing the bullet wound and bullet fragment.
Spent bullet is on far left side of teeth.
Note: The wisdom teeth in this drawing are still present.
Bullet path: The bullet strikes the forehead, deflects down into the sinus cavity, and then down to the left cheek.
Blue is bullet wound in scalp. Red marks are the fragment and bullet. Red line is bullet path behind face through sinus.
The bullet is visible in the lower right of image, above the teeth.
The bullet fragment is visible in the upper right of the image in the forehead.
Note: The wisdom teeth have apparently been pulled in the past.
X-ray right side view of Travis Alexander's head.
The bullet's path transects the perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone and follows the hollows of the sinus cavities.
Front view of the perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone. This bone joins the cribriform plate, which is located in the base of the skull.
The bullet fragment is inside the upper right sinus cavity.
The bullet path follows the hollows of the sinus cavity behind the face.
The location of the bullet fragment and bullet wound markers were fixed by overlaying a number of photos, front view and side.
Sinus cavities overlaid in pink.
X-ray of Travis Alexander's skull. Bullet visible in lower right of picture. Fragment in upper right of skull not visible in this view.
Author of Innocence: An Argument for Jodi Arias at www.RichardSpeights.com
The lungs weigh 340 grams left and 280 grams right. The upper and lower airways are patent and of normal caliber. The pleural surfaces are smooth and glistening. The parenchyma is autolyzed dark red-purple, exuding moderate amounts of blood and intermixed frothy decomposition fluid. There are no areas of induration, consolidation, hemorrhage or gross scarring. The pulmonary vessels are patent and of normal caliber.
Juan Martinez: Would any of these injuries— would— and, for the example, this one [pointing to the wound that injured the superior vena cava], would— what we associate with television, would blood come out of the mouth, the ears, or just out of the chest area?
Kevin Horn: “It depends on what’s hit inside the body. If the lung was nicked, which is possible in this case because we’re dealing with a decomposed body, so the- the- the organs aren’t as pristine, they’re not as— they don’t lend themselves to examination as in a fresh individual. But if the blood— if the lung is nicked, they can cough up blood. If you have blood going into the throat area, and he does have, you know, throat injuries as well, which we’ll talk about, all of those can cause coughing up of blood or loss of blood out of the mouth and the nose.”
(Transcript of Dr. Horn’s first day of testimony, Jodi Arias trial.)
The bullet strikes Alexander’s forehead at the very edge of his superior right sinus cavity at a dramatic angle (see photos C and I). The bullet deflects and enters the sinus cavity through the thinner bone covering. It then comes into contact with the back wall of the sinus cavity and glances off, punching a hole. This does no damage to the dura mater.
The bullet then travels through the superior right sinus cavity into the nasal passages, where it strikes the perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone (see photos J and L). This perpendicular plate is attached to the cribriform plate (see photos K and P). As the bullet strikes perpendicular plate, the impact shatters and tears away the cribriform plate, which leaves a large hole in the base of the skull. This is the opening Dr. Horn found in the base of Alexander’s skull he supposed was a bullet exit hole.
After striking the perpendicular plate of ethmoid bone, the bullet travels into and through the inferior left sinus cavity. The bullet then breaks out the far side and comes to rest in the soft tissue under the left cheek (see photo C and E).
The path of this bullet track is a straight line, as opposed to the zigzag bullet track Dr. Horn proposed (see photos L and N).
“There is a 1/8 inch circular gunshot wound of entrance over the anterolateral lower right forehead, above the eyebrow. The wound is located 3 inches inferior to the crown of the head and 1 ½ inches to the right of the midline forehead. There is a 1/8 inch wide equal rim of marginal abrasion surrounding the wound. No soot, gunpowder stippling, or intact gunpowder particles surround the wound.
The wound track perforates the anterior frontal skull near the superior orbital bone and transverses the right anterior fossa, without gross evidence of significant intracranial hemorrhage or apparent cerebral injury (although examination of the brain tissue is somewhat limited by the decomposed nature of the remains). The projectile re-enters the facial skeleton near the midline and the wound track terminates in the left cheek.”
(Autopsy Report, Travis Alexander, Page 4 of 8, transcribed as found)
(In plain language, Dr. Horn found a bullet hole in the scalp over the right eyebrow and an apparent bullet entry hole in the skull with an associate bullet exit hole farther down near the base of the skull. The path of the bullet transected the part of the skull where the front lobe of the brain rests. However, he found no evidence of a damaged brain.)
Martinez: With regards to that issue of the perforation of that particular part of the anatomy, so as you look at it and your recollection, based on what you saw, was there that perforation?
Horn: Yes, there would have to have been.
Martinez: I’m sorry, I didn’t hear you.
Horn: There would have to have been, yes.
Martinez: When you say, there would have to have been, why is that?
Horn: Because of the location of the tracks, and the fact that the dura sits right on where that bone would have been fractured and blown apart so it would have had to perforate the dura in that location.
(Transcript of Dr. Kevin Horn’s Testimony, Jodi Arias trial)
Vague terms allow a speaker to sound honest without actually speaking to truth (…let your yea be yea; and your nay, nay; lest ye fall into condemnations).
Juan Martinez: Of all these injuries that we’ve taken a look at so far, how many of those have been the type that would have been fatal, of all the ones that we’ve looked at so far: the head, the back, and then the one to the front?
Kevin Horn: Taken together, all of the wounds at the back and the head could have been fatal from bleeding over time. The most significant wounds are going to be the neck wound, which we haven’t talked about yet, the stab wound that penetrates the heart, the vein leading into the heart, and then also the gunshot wound, which we also haven’t discussed.
Juan Martinez: In this particular case, you’ve indicated that there are three specific injuries that could have led to death. We’ve talked about the stab wound in the chest. We’ve talked about the slitting of the throat. And then we’ve talked about the shot to the head. With regard to the shot to the head, would that have been rapidly fatal?
Kevin Horn: It likely would have been, yes.
Juan Martinez: And by ‘rapidly fatal,’ what are we talking about?
Kevin Horn: Well, if you have a projectile going through the front part of the brain, the person may not die immediately, but they’ll probably lose the ability to function normally. They’ll lose consciousness and they’ll be laying on the floor.
(Transcript of Dr. Kevin Horn’s Testimony, Jodi Arias trial)
The overall language in Dr. Horn’s autopsy report describes a decomposing but unaffected brain:
“…without gross evidence of significant intracranial hemorrhage or apparent cerebral injury…” (Autopsy Report, Page 4 of 8), and “…there is good preservation of cerebral symmetry [left and right hemispheres are near equal in size and shape]…”…Multiple serial sections of the autolyzed brain do not reveal the presence of grossly apparent trauma, foreign bodies, or previously existing natural disease…” (Autopsy Report, Page 7 of 8) and “…Based on the autopsy findings and investigative history, as available to me, it is my opinion that Travis Victor Alexander, a 30-year-old Caucasian male, died as a result of sharp force trauma of the neck and torso…” and” …There was a single penetrating gunshot wound of the head with injuries of the skull and face…” (Autopsy Report, Page 8 of 8)
(Grammar, punctuation, and hyphenations transcribed as found in report)
(See Dr. Horn's autopsy report at hyperlink: Autopsy Report)
Writing to Innocence